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Calculating the Out-the-Door Price for a New Car - CarGurus

Calculating the Out-the-Door Price for a New Car - CarGurus

Calculating the Out-the-Door Price for a New Car - CarGurus 1

Biggest sale of the year! Thousands below invoice! New-car dealers commonly use phrases like these to draw prospective buyers into showrooms; yet, as with anything, the devil is in the details. More important than a vehicle's sale price is the actual out-the-door price, a figure that reflects all applicable taxes, fees, and other costs that may turn that great deal into something more overpriced. Some of these costs are unavoidable, but others are optional and possibly open to negotiation.

The Cost of the Car All automakers, from Honda to Bentley, assign a Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price (MSRP) to each new vehicle. Sometimes referred to as the "price of unit," it's nothing more than a recommendation made by the manufacturer to its dealerships, and it's typically the price that shoppers will see advertised at the dealership. Included in the MSRP are the base price of the vehicle plus any additional packages or accessories (added either at the factory or the dealership), such as a moonroof or a set of floor mats. While the MSRP is what the shopper is expected to pay, the invoice price (which you can find on CarGurus Research pages' Trims & Specs tabs) is the amount the dealer pays for the vehicle and any accessories from the manufacturer. Finally, the destination charge covers the cost of transporting the vehicle from the assembly plant to the dealer's lot. With the exception of the destination charge, shoppers can negotiate all of the figures above, as they do not reflect manufacturer-provided incentives made directly to the dealer. Unless the vehicle in question is rare or in particularly high demand, shoppers should use the invoice price as a starting point for negotiation, taking advantage of any rebates or promotions that work to lower the overall price. Since these promotions change frequently, it's worth spending a few minutes researching current offers before stepping foot inside a dealership. From military-personnel discounts to local credit-union-membership financing rates, there's usually some sort of discount for almost every buyer.

The Value of Your Trade-In Purple Pintos and wheezing junkers being notable exceptions, choosing to trade in your car can have a significant impact on a new vehicle's out-the-door price. Depending on factors such as season, location, and current fuel prices, dealerships will have varying levels of interest in particular trade-in vehicles, and will make offers accordingly. If a buyer does not owe any additional money on their car loan, the amount the dealership pays for the trade will reduce the purchase price of the new vehicle, thereby allowing the buyer to pay less sales tax. If, however, the dealer's offer is less than what is still owed on the trade, the buyer will need to cover the difference. That amount can be a substantial sum, which will be added to the out-the-door price. This is called having negative equity, or being "under water," which is best avoided, even if that means delaying your new-car purchase until you've paid off your current ride.

How Much You will Pay in Taxes and Fees Perhaps the most overlooked expense associated with a new-car purchase is that of taxes and fees. A lot of shoppers will spend time and effort hammering out the best price for a car or value for a trade, only to find themselves heading into round two with a finance manager outlining extra costs that are largely non-negotiable. Depending on where the buyer lives, these will include state sales tax, registration (license plates, or "tags" in some areas), inspection and/or smog fees, a prep fee (basically money to cover the dealer's overhead expenses), and the seemingly inescapable documentation fee. That last one can vary greatly, with some dealerships pre-printing a set price on all sales forms to indicate it's not up for discussion, while others make a point of noting that they do not ever charge a doc fee. Another expense to consider is excise tax, which is what is paid to your local DMV whenever the vehicle's registration is renewed (usually annually). The amount due typically correlates with the car's value, meaning it should decrease in subsequent years, until leveling off at a figure determined by the state. More often than not, however, excise tax is not paid while you are still at the dealership-typically a bill will arrive via mail directly from the DMV.

Given the high prices of new cars, most buyers find themselves needing a loan-and that means interest. Though less common than it once was, some manufacturers still offer 0% interest rates for buyers who finance through the dealership, but in most cases buyers will still have to pay at least a small percentage in interest. Rates are determined based on factors such as credit score and the length of the loan's term. Buyers can do themselves a favor by checking their credit score and their bank's current auto loan rates before starting negotiations with a dealer. One way to keep costs down in this area is to pay any taxes and fees out of pocket, reducing the amount that needs to be borrowed and, therefore, the amount of interest you will pay.

Those hard-to-believe low prices work to get people in the door, but the out-the-door prices determine whether shoppers can afford a a specific vehicle. With a solid understanding of what is involved and how the numbers get crunched, buyers can avoid the unexpected and make that next new-car purchase as stress-free as possible.

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Problems of Phased Array Ground Penetrating Radar Detection System
Although GPR has been widely used in hydrology, engineering, environment and other fields, many basic theoretical and technical problems have not been fundamentally solved, so the real advantages of GPR have not been brought into full play.The main problems existing in GPR technology include:1) The detection depth is shallow, and the contradiction between detection depth and resolution cannot be overcome. Increasing detection depth means sacrificing detection resolution;2) Multiple spread and other clutter jamming are serious, and there has been no good elimination method, which exists in radars at home and abroad;3) The influence of medium unevenness is great and can not be eliminated, resulting in difficulty in obtaining necessary velocity data;4) The data collection method of single sending and single receiving can provide limited information for post-processing and interpretation.The above problems are fatal defects for GPR. Although many geophysicists, electromagnetic experts and geophysical workers have done a lot of research and improvement on radar antenna design, signal processing and underground target imaging, these works are only partial modifications to the existing GPR system. In order to develop GPR technology, we must update our ideas and solve the problems from the fundamental principle.In view of this situation, experts proposed to develop a new GPR system - phased array GPR detection system in 1999.The basic research idea is to replace the current monopole radar antenna with the phased array radar antenna by using the relatively mature military phased array radar technology. Its purpose is to gather the electromagnetic wave into a narrow beam to transmit underground (or detection object) through the phased array technology, and receive the radar echo signal reflected by the target by using the multi-channel acquisition technology, The advanced data processing is carried out, and finally the three-dimensional image of the internal structure of the detection object is given.Development prospect of ground penetrating radar technologyIt is worth noting that at present, similar products have appeared in the market, such as RIS antenna array series of a company, but these products simply combine multiple monopole antennas into array antennas, which is essentially different from the idea of phased array ground penetrating radar.Because the phased array radar converges the electromagnetic wave into a narrow beam by controlling the phase delay of each channel, the energy is concentrated and the wave front diffusion is small. Therefore, the detection depth of the phased array radar is much larger under the condition of the same frequency and transmission power; On the contrary, under the same detection depth, phased array radar can improve the transmission power, so its resolution is much higher than the existing radar. In addition, since the spherical wave transmission is changed to beam transmission, the influence of medium heterogeneity is much smaller.Secondly, the phased array radar works in a continuous scanning mode and can scan in multiple directions. Therefore, the amount of information is much larger than that of the existing ground penetrating radar. For some special detection work, such as the quality detection of embankment cut-off wall, its role is unmatched by the existing ground penetrating radar (monopole antenna radar can not detect the joints, forks and other defects of embankment cut-off wall at all).Because phased array radar is a multi-channel received signal, multi-channel superposition can be carried out, just like the multiple coverage technology of reflection seismic exploration. Therefore, multiple interference can be greatly eliminated, which is difficult for existing radars. The antenna of high frequency (600mhz-1ghz) phased array ground penetrating radar can be made smaller, and its advantages are unmatched by the existing ground penetrating radar in shallow detection.At present, the system prototype has been completed. The carrier free pulse working system with center frequency of 900MHz is adopted, and the transmitting and receiving antennas are separated. 16 (4 × 4) Transmit channel forming, beam aggregation and scanning 16 (4) × 4) The channel receives the echo, and the optional scanning angles are - 36 °, - 24 °, - 12 °, 0 °, 12 °, 24 ° and 36 °.The software part of the system has rich data processing functions. The main conventional processing includes filtering, gain adjustment, static and dynamic correction, deconvolution, complex signal analysis, time-frequency analysis, etc., and multi-channel data processing, such as velocity analysis, superposition technology, coherence analysis technology, array signal processing, etc. And weak signal extraction, target automatic recognition and inversion interpretation under various clutter interference. A large number of field experiments on concrete detection in Yichang Three Gorges dam are carried out. The experimental results show that the spotlight scanning function of phased array radar has been realized, the penetration depth is greater than 1.5m and the resolution is higher than that of ordinary radar.Editing: hfy
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Problems of Phased Array Ground Penetrating Radar Detection System
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