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British Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co Ltd V Underground Electric Rlys Co of London Ltd

British Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co Ltd v Underground Electric Rlys Co of London Ltd

British Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co Ltd V Underground Electric Rlys Co of London Ltd 1

British Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co Ltd v Underground Electric Railways Co of London Ltd AC 673 is an English contract law case, concerning the duty to mitigate one's loss after a breach of contract

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Worldwide Underground

Worldwide Underground is the third studio album by American singer Erykah Badu, released September 16, 2003 by Motown Records. Recording sessions for the album took place during 2003, following Badu's period of writer's block and her performing on the Frustrated Artist Tour. Production was handled primarily by production group Freakquency, which consists of Badu, Rashad Smith, James Poyser, and RC Williams. Prominently incorporating hip hop and funk elements, the album features an unconventional musical structure and minimal songwriting concerning hip hop culture, love, ghetto life, and gang culture. The albums features appearances from rappers Dead Prez and Common, along with singers Queen Latifah, Bahamadia, and Angie Stone. The album debuted at number three on the U.S. Billboard 200 chart, selling 143,561 copies in its first week. It was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America, and produced three singles that achieved moderate chart success, while the album was underpromoted and sold less than her previous albums. Upon its release, Worldwide Underground received generally lukewarm reviews from critics. The album has sold 609,000 copies in the United States.

British Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co Ltd V Underground Electric Rlys Co of London Ltd 2

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No Nose Job: The Legend of Digital Underground

No Nose Job: The Legend of Digital Underground is the first compilation album from the rap group, Digital Underground. It features several of their songs, such as "Same Song" and "The Humpty Dance"

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Protection of Underground Sources of Drinking Water

An underground source of drinking water (USDW) means an aquifer with sufficient quality and quantity of ground water to supply a public water system now or in the future. Underground Injection Control (UIC) ProgramThe SDWA prohibits any underground injection which endangers drinking water sources. The Ninth Circuit United States Court of Appeals while enforcing this prohibition of "harmful injections into drinking water aquifers" explains that underground injection of even clean water can result in the illegal movement of a fluid containing a contaminant into an USDW: The SDWA and its implementing regulations are not concerned with whether an injected fluid is itself contaminated. Rather, they are concerned with the result of "injection activity." A permit applicant must show that the proposed activity will not allow "the movement of fluid containing [a] contaminant." Id. Injections of clean water into the ground can cause the movement of contaminants into an aquifer. For example, contaminants may dissolve into clean water as the injected water passes through the soil on its way to an aquifer.:1077 Underground fluid injection can have disastrous consequences for drinking water and, in turn, for human health. Injected fluid is hard to trace once it enters the ground, and polluted aquifers are hard to remediate. Congress' cautious "preventive" approach requires permit applicants to show that their injections will not harm underground sources of drinking water. It presumes, until an applicant shows otherwise, that injections will contaminate an USDW. Although this approach may result in forbidding some injections that would not contaminate an USDW, it is a valid exercise of Congress' authority.:1080 The 1974 SDWA authorized EPA to regulate injection wells in order to protect underground sources of drinking water. The UIC permit system is organized into six classes of wells. Class I. Industrial waste (hazardous and non-hazardous) and municipal wastewater disposal wells Class II. Oil and gas related injection wells (except wells solely used for production; see Hydraulic fracturing exemption) Class III. Solution mining wells Class IV. Shallow hazardous and radioactive waste injection wells (no longer permitted) Class V. Wells that inject non-hazardous fluids into or above underground sources of drinking water Class VI. Geologic sequestration wells for carbon dioxide.EPA has granted UIC primacy enforcement authority to 34 states for Class I, II, III, IV and V wells. Seven additional states and two tribes have been granted primacy authority for Class II wells only. EPA manages enforcement of Class VI wells directly. If a state does not take appropriate enforcement action then EPA must issue an order requiring a violator to comply with the requirements, or the agency will initiate a civil enforcement action. The SDWA directly provides for citizen civil actions. Hydraulic fracturing exemptionCongress amended the SDWA in 2005 to exclude hydraulic fracturing, an industrial process for recovering oil and natural gas, from coverage under the UIC program, except where diesel fuels are used. This exclusion has been called the "Halliburton Loophole". Halliburton is the world's largest provider of hydraulic fracturing services. (Cheney had been Chairman and CEO of Halliburton from 1995 to 2000.) Wellhead protection areasThe act requires states to establish wellhead protection programs to protect underground sources of drinking water. Wellhead protection programs must specify the duties of agencies, determine the wellhead protection areas, identify sources of contaminants, implement control measures to protect the wellhead protection areas, and a contingency plan for alternative drinking water supplies in the event of contamination. Federal agencies having jurisdiction over potential sources of contaminants must comply with all requirements of the state wellhead protection program. Emergency powerThe "Updated Guidance on Invoking Emergency Authority Under Section 1431 Of The Safe Drinking Water Act" shows that 42 U.S.C. § 300i gives the EPA Administrator broad power to protect public water systems and underground sources of drinking water (USDWs).:3 This guidance encourages more widespread use of the EPA's emergency powers.:3 This emergency power is granted when the Administrator receives "information that a contaminant which is present in or likely to enter a public water system or an underground source of drinking water . which may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to the health of persons" and that appropriate agencies have not acted.:6-7 Since this emergency power protection applies to all USDWs it includes potential future supplies of public water and even private wells.:7-8 The imminent endangerment includes contaminants that lead to chronic health effects that may not be realized for years such as lead and carcinogens.:9-10 To prevent harm from occurring the EPA Administrator may issue administrative orders or commence civil actions even without absolute proof.:11 Judicial review and civil actionsWhenever EPA finds a violation of the UIC Program and the State does not or cannot act, the agency must issue an administrative order or to file a civil action to require compliance. A citizen can file a petition for judicial review of EPA final actions. A citizen may also file against any violator of the SDWA or against EPA for failure to take action under the SDWA which is not discretionary. EPA emergency administrative orders are also final actions subject to judicial review.

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Problems of Phased Array Ground Penetrating Radar Detection System
Although GPR has been widely used in hydrology, engineering, environment and other fields, many basic theoretical and technical problems have not been fundamentally solved, so the real advantages of GPR have not been brought into full play.The main problems existing in GPR technology include:1) The detection depth is shallow, and the contradiction between detection depth and resolution cannot be overcome. Increasing detection depth means sacrificing detection resolution;2) Multiple spread and other clutter jamming are serious, and there has been no good elimination method, which exists in radars at home and abroad;3) The influence of medium unevenness is great and can not be eliminated, resulting in difficulty in obtaining necessary velocity data;4) The data collection method of single sending and single receiving can provide limited information for post-processing and interpretation.The above problems are fatal defects for GPR. Although many geophysicists, electromagnetic experts and geophysical workers have done a lot of research and improvement on radar antenna design, signal processing and underground target imaging, these works are only partial modifications to the existing GPR system. In order to develop GPR technology, we must update our ideas and solve the problems from the fundamental principle.In view of this situation, experts proposed to develop a new GPR system - phased array GPR detection system in 1999.The basic research idea is to replace the current monopole radar antenna with the phased array radar antenna by using the relatively mature military phased array radar technology. Its purpose is to gather the electromagnetic wave into a narrow beam to transmit underground (or detection object) through the phased array technology, and receive the radar echo signal reflected by the target by using the multi-channel acquisition technology, The advanced data processing is carried out, and finally the three-dimensional image of the internal structure of the detection object is given.Development prospect of ground penetrating radar technologyIt is worth noting that at present, similar products have appeared in the market, such as RIS antenna array series of a company, but these products simply combine multiple monopole antennas into array antennas, which is essentially different from the idea of phased array ground penetrating radar.Because the phased array radar converges the electromagnetic wave into a narrow beam by controlling the phase delay of each channel, the energy is concentrated and the wave front diffusion is small. Therefore, the detection depth of the phased array radar is much larger under the condition of the same frequency and transmission power; On the contrary, under the same detection depth, phased array radar can improve the transmission power, so its resolution is much higher than the existing radar. In addition, since the spherical wave transmission is changed to beam transmission, the influence of medium heterogeneity is much smaller.Secondly, the phased array radar works in a continuous scanning mode and can scan in multiple directions. Therefore, the amount of information is much larger than that of the existing ground penetrating radar. For some special detection work, such as the quality detection of embankment cut-off wall, its role is unmatched by the existing ground penetrating radar (monopole antenna radar can not detect the joints, forks and other defects of embankment cut-off wall at all).Because phased array radar is a multi-channel received signal, multi-channel superposition can be carried out, just like the multiple coverage technology of reflection seismic exploration. Therefore, multiple interference can be greatly eliminated, which is difficult for existing radars. The antenna of high frequency (600mhz-1ghz) phased array ground penetrating radar can be made smaller, and its advantages are unmatched by the existing ground penetrating radar in shallow detection.At present, the system prototype has been completed. The carrier free pulse working system with center frequency of 900MHz is adopted, and the transmitting and receiving antennas are separated. 16 (4 × 4) Transmit channel forming, beam aggregation and scanning 16 (4) × 4) The channel receives the echo, and the optional scanning angles are - 36 °, - 24 °, - 12 °, 0 °, 12 °, 24 ° and 36 °.The software part of the system has rich data processing functions. The main conventional processing includes filtering, gain adjustment, static and dynamic correction, deconvolution, complex signal analysis, time-frequency analysis, etc., and multi-channel data processing, such as velocity analysis, superposition technology, coherence analysis technology, array signal processing, etc. And weak signal extraction, target automatic recognition and inversion interpretation under various clutter interference. A large number of field experiments on concrete detection in Yichang Three Gorges dam are carried out. The experimental results show that the spotlight scanning function of phased array radar has been realized, the penetration depth is greater than 1.5m and the resolution is higher than that of ordinary radar.Editing: hfy
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عمليات البحث ذات الصلة
Problems of Phased Array Ground Penetrating Radar Detection System
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How Many NCAA Football Bowls Are There?
What Is the Name of a Horror Movie with an Eye Falling in a Cocktail Glass?
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PLEASE HELP ME CHOOSE a VIDEO CAMERA!?
The National Key R & D Plan Launched the Key Project of "key Technologies and Demonstration of Inter
Alibaba Goes to War! Smart Home Battlefield Adds Another Giant
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